You are the Queen.


A must for every girl.

Vennela Posika

A big shout out to all girls out there. Firstly, Let me tell you This article is just to remind you woman how worthy you are ( I am not trying to portray we are above men or something, So no controversies on that ) . There are many girls out there who are suffering through a Harsh break up, being bullied, suffering the past pain , Being constantly called Ugly or what not? This is for all the woman out there. Hey, Do not look at yourself with disgust, You are a gift to this earth. You are beautiful, You are a light, an energy, an essence. You are nature herself. Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise. 1526456_855018664524182_1169726039_nTo the girls who always wished you looked better  So, Hey! You worry about being thin? Being fair? Or having a toned figure? Let me tell you, You are already perfect the…

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The Future of Sun: Scitacular


If you live on this planet you love sun and are a big fan of its work. It provides earth with just the right temperature to sustain life. The sun hasn’t been so gentle with us all the time and it definitely wont stay the same in the future. I know I know, calm down.

Currently our 4.5 billion years old sun is just like a middle aged man just past his teenage. Our Sun will spend its next 7.7 billion years growing bigger, hotter, brighter, cooler, changing its color, and finally into a white dwarf all while trying its best to destroy the earth. Sure the earth as a planet will survive sun’s might but us and everything else living on this earth, not so much.

Our sun essentially eats hydrogen for breakfast, lunch and dinner. It fuses two hydrogen atoms to form helium atom and also releasing a heck of a lot of energy. As the time passes our sun will exhaust all of its hydrogen. Then the helium and other heavier elements in its core start fusion reactions of their own. As a result more and more heavier elements like lithium,beryllium and carbon are formed in its core. Due to this, the pressure in its core starts to build up and the sun starts to expand into a red giant. A red giant is basically a bigger and badder version of our sun which will have a radius twice of that of the distance between the earth and the present sun. So basically this is the end of existence for our earth.

Then our sun starts to loose its outer layers and starts to compress and becomes a white dwarf. This is basically the end of our sun. Our sun emits all of its remaining energy and then fades away into a black dwarf floating endlessly in space.

So, don’t pack your bags yet and sign off your bosses you still have more than 7 billion years to live on this earth, if we manage to live for such a long time.

Why aren’t you a leftie or a rightie?: Scitacular


10 to 15 percent of people who are reading this article are lefties or if you happen to be the President of USA there’s a 5 in 7 chance of you being a leftie. I mean seriously, 5 out of 7 of the recent Presidents of US are lefties, even Obama is a leftie. But like 90 percent of the humans on this earth I am right handed, so why do I have a preference for one hand over the other in the first place and what is it that determines the dominance of one hand over the other? The answer maybe lies in evolution.

Handedness or hand dominance is not unique to humans, animals like dogs and cats also sometimes prefer one paw over the other. Yes! your pet is as right handed as you are. Handedness has nothing to do with genes. At least we haven’t yet discovered the gene responsible for it. Many times people in the same family usually prefer a hand over the other but that doesn’t necessarily mean that its hereditary. Identical Twins who share the same genes don’t always have the same dominant hand. So blaming genes is not fair in this situation.

There are many theories in the wild including the idea that our right handedness is an evolutionary byproduct of human cooperation. According to a study cooperative acts like sharing tools and stuff have favored the dominance of one hand over the other, so that everyone can use the same tools. Sorry you lefties, I know the design of scissors is a stupid one.

Another widely accepted theory is that our hand dominance is connected to the asymmetry of our brain. Our brains are contra lateral, which means the left hemisphere of our cerebral cortex where language and logical processing is done controls the movement of the right side of our body and the right hemisphere where the face recognition and other stuff is carried out controls the left side of our body. So the side which processes the speech and language also controls our right hand. It makes sense right. A study has shown that lefties process the language more evenly across both hemispheres and in some cases completely on the right side. So lefties have a different way of processing things than all us righties.

So lefties stop scrutinizing the design of notebooks, controllers and scissors and enjoy the fact that Scarlett Johansson is also a lefty. But I don’t think we should give any less credit to our less dominant hand because its still working hard and I cant imagine having to type this article without my right hand’s significant other.

Evolution Of Smartphones: Everyday Tech


Motorola DynaTAC 8000X

Cell phones have come a long way since their inception. It has been 41 years since Motorola first demonstrated the worlds first handheld cellphone. On 3 April 1973 when Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from a handheld subscriber equipment, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first commercial handheld cellular phone was released by Motorola in 1983. It weighed around 1.1 kg and offered around 30 minutes of talktime on full charge. It could store only 30 contacts at the most and took 10 hours to full charge. It was a true revolution in those times and people went crazy for this device. After that in 1989 came the Motorola MicroTAC which was the first flip phone ever made. Then came the Motorola StarTAC in 1996 which was the first modern truly portable cell phone which weighed around 88 g.

IBM Simon

The first touch screen phone came around 1994. It was the IBM’s Simon. It had a black and white touch screen which replaced the physical buttons. It didn’t generate much hype at the time though. Touchscreens date back to the 1950’s but the IBM Simon marked the birth of first ever mass produced touchscreen cell phone.

Nokia 3310

Around the 2000’s cellphones have started coming in more and more portable and user friendly avatars. The era of NOKIA had begun. Then came the Nokia 7110 which was the first phone capable of internet connectivity which had a wap browser. Then came the awesome NOKIA 3310 on September 1, 2000. Now this was some phone. It is best built gadget ever. It was built like a tank, better than a tank actually. There are many videos on YouTube trying to destroy this tank but almost all of them fail drastically doing so. In 2002, Nokia released the first ever color screen phone which had the first ever camera on a cell phone. The camera is of 0.3 megapixels and took great photos for a handheld device at that time. Then came the Nokia 1100 in 2003. Now this phone took the market by storm. More than 250 million 1100’s were sold since its launch. This made this the worlds best selling consumer electronic device in the ever.

BlackBerry Quark

In 2000 when the Nokia was taking this world by storm Samsung released the Samsung SPH-M100 which was the first ever phone that could play MP3 music. In 2001 Sony released the Ericsson T39 which was the first ever phone with built in Bluetooth. In 2003 BlackBerry released their first phone called the BlackBerry Quark 6210. Sony released the worlds first front facing camera phone called the Sony Ericsson Z1010. The camera was mainly used for video calling and those occasional photos which we call selfies now.

Moto Razr

Next came what I consider the most beautiful piece of hardware ever, the Moto Razr. The Motorola Razr series was released in 2004. It was a fashion statement at that time and it sold like hotcakes all over the world. It wasn’t very user friendly and the software was crappy but it looked like a super model compared to other phones at that time. Around 150 million of them were sold till date. It was hard to resist buying it.

Nokia N70

Then in 2005 came the Nokia N series phones. The most popular among them are the N70 series phones. We can see people using those phones today.

Apple iPhone

U know what comes next. Yes, you’ve guessed it right. Its the apple iPhone. In 2007, Apple Inc unveiled the Apple iPhone, which was the world’s first advanced touchscreen smartphone. It’s the first phone to have an operating system, the iOS, and by enabling apps to run on the phone, it had allowed cellphones to become the primary mobile device of use. Having an iPhone became a source of pride. It was true work of innovation.


2008 marked the best year for the smartphone industry as Google announced their Android operating system and unveiled the HTC G1. It is the first ever device running the Android operating system which went onto become the most popular operating system in the world today. That year also marked the release of the Apple iPhone 3g which was hugely popular.


2009 did not mark any important changes in the industry. Phones like the BlackBerry Bold, Motorola Droid, iPhone 3gs, BlackBerry Storm were the most popular ones that year. The HTC HD2 was the most versatile smartphone ever built. It has been modded extensively to run all sorts of operating systems. Even the windows 8 was made to run on it. It is the dream phone of any developer.

LG Optimus 7

2010 had some pretty interesting phones to offer. Some of them were the Apple iPhone 4, Samsung Galaxy S, Nokia N8, Nexus one were the most popular ones. That year also marked the advent of windows phone 7 running devices like HTC HD7, LG Optimus 7 etc…

Nokia Lumia 800

2011 was the start of a brand name which in a sense killed Nokia. The Lumia 800 was released running the windows phone 7.5 operating system. This year also made the Nexus brand popular through the Galaxy Nexus. Samsung was quickly becoming the best smartphone manufacturer through the galaxy s2 which was hugely popular among the consumers. Apple also released their iPhone 4s which also sold in huge numbers. Samsung also announced the experimental Galaxy Note which wasn’t appreciated by the then consumers.

Samsung Galaxy S3

2012 was the year in which according to me the best looking smartphones came out into the market. The iPhone 5, HTC OneX, Google Nexus 4, Galaxy S3, HTC Butterfly(Droid DNA) and the Nokia Lumia 920 are one of the best looking phones ever built. The Galaxy S3 was the best selling phone that year and broke all the sales records that year. Over 30 million galaxy S3’s were sold throughout the year. Samsung Note 2 was released and it did manage to find some traction in the market. The Nexus brand also became highly desirable for its high value.

2013 saw some significant industry firsts. A Flexible display on the LG G Flex and Samsung Galaxy Round. A 42 Mega Pixel camera on the Nokia Lumia 1020. Google bought the Motorola and released the Moto G and Moto X which were critically acclaimed in the market and provided the company a grand comeback. A fingerprint scanner in the iPhone 5s which actually worked. The Note 3 was the best phone in the Note series yet and was a popular option among consumers. The Galaxy S4 was not a big game changer but it sold in huge numbers. HTC released the HTC One(M7) with their propriety Ultra Pixel camera technology, made by a beautiful aluminum body. Sony released their Xperia Z smartphones which brought waterproofing and dust resistance to a flagship smartphone with IP67 rating.

2014 saw a great amount of awesome smartphones. Some of them include the HTC ONE(M8), Xperia Z2 and Z3, Samsung Galaxy S5, LG G3 and the Nexus 5. Apple has announced its so called revolutionary iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. Windows acquired Nokia and released many great smartphones like Lumia 1520 and 930(Icon).

The smartphone industry has come a long way since 1973. Today’s phones have everything we need and more. But our smartphone makers have stopped experimenting with design. All we have now are slabs of metal and plastic. In the era of Nokia ( 2000-2008) we had a hell of a lot of form factors and beautiful designs. We need that kind of competition among manufacturers now.

What do you think about the evolution of cell phones? Leave your thoughts and views in the comment section below. Like and share this article on social networking sites.

Scitacular: How does the internet work?


Internet has become an integral part of our lives. You are viewing this blog and reading this article because of the internet. But did you ever think what exactly does internet mean, how it works? It sounds complicated but it’s not.

Lets understand the basic idea of how the internet works. Internet is nothing but interconnected computers. You are viewing this webpage on a computer. Your PC, mobile or tablet share the same architecture as a computer, so they are also computers. The webpage you are viewing sits on another computer or in a lot of computers otherwise called as servers which are situated all across the globe and even in space. In 1964 there were only 4 servers in the whole world. These servers are controlled by different companies and governments.

Now lets dig deeper into the world of internet. First, lets learn about some of the common acronyms related to internet. IP address means ‘Internet Protocol address’. IP address is the unique number assigned to every computer on the internet. To know your IP address click here. URL means ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ which is the name of the webpage to you and me. ISP means ‘Internet Service Provider’ who are the people that provide you with internet. DNS means ‘ Domain Name Server’ which is basically a server. A server is a computer which stores information about everything in the internet including websites, videos, Photos, your likes and shares of this blog in facebook and google+. These DNSs contains information about which IP address are connected to which URl.

Internet is nothing but cables and wireless signals connecting people and computers to each other all over the world. Here it goes, read this carefully. When you type a URl like or in your browser it sends this request to ISP( Internet Service Provider) which will in turn send your request to a DNS(Domain Name Server) which has the information about the URLs IP address. This DNS searches for the IP address you requested and if it doesn’t have the information it transfers the request to another DNS and so on. Eventually your request is found and the DNS sends this information back to your ISP which will in turn send it to your browser and your computer decodes this stuff and displays it on the monitor. So this is basically translates to your computer connected to another computer.

When you are connected you can download text or videos or photos from the host DNS onto your computer. It downloads this stuff by another protocol called http( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) or https( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure). You can find this in the starting of every website URL in the address bar of your browser. So when u clicked the link of this blog or article your request has traveled all around the world and who knows maybe even went into space. All this processes are done at the speed of light as a result it doesn’t take ages for a website to load. From next time if a website takes about a second longer than usual, you know that it is travelling and visiting corners of the world at the speed of light.

Now you know what happens in the internet and how it works. Leave your thoughts in the comment section below and share this if u like what you just read. Know more about science and technology here.

Awesome Minds: Leonardo da Vinci


Leonardo da Vinci

Very few people in this world can compete with Leonardo da Vinci for the title of The Supreme Genius of all ages. He is a true polymath and is regarded as a renaissance man. He is one of the most famous and most talented artists the world has ever seen. His artworks include the very famous and most valuable Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, Virgin Of The Rocks and many many more. He was not only an artist he was an engineer, an anatomist and a chronicler of science. His innovations were so advanced and so ahead of his time that even now, with this vast amount of technology at our hands we are still learning from his documentaries. Unfortunately, most of his scientific work documented in at least 7000 pages of notes remained lost or hidden around the world for centuries after his death. And he didn’t know Latin, so most of his work didn’t make an impact on the then scientific world as Latin was the main language used by the scientific community back then. So he couldn’t publish his works to the world even if he wanted to. As a result of this, despite his pioneering research he couldn’t make a considerable impact on the science and technology of that time.

Mona Lisa

The Last Supper

Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Yes, ‘da Vinci’ means ‘of Vinci’. Much against our expectations Leonardo did not receive any form of education from anyone except for normal reading, writing and basic math. He was very much interested in painting and hence became an apprentice of the famous artist Andrea del Verrocchio where he remained until his mid 20s. By that time he became a master in painting and sculpting. He then went on to painting the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper and many more famous artworks.

In late 1400’s when Leonardo was coming up as an artist most of the world was devoid of real science. All of the peoples believes were based on bible or from the ancient philosophers and a lot of which was often superstitious or completely untrue. Leonardo did not bother about those believes, he was all about experimentation, observation and reasoning. But the best ability of Leonardo was to observe and meticulously record his experiments and thoughts in words and graphic illustrations of artwork.



He was obsessed with flight. He observed various birds and analysed how their feathers and muscles worked together to make them fly. He thought if birds can fly then humans can too. He documented all of his observations and recordings in notebooks called codices. In early 1500s he put forward a notebook which contained all about flight of birds. It was called the ‘Codex on the Flight of Birds’. It has over 35,000 words and 500 sketches related to flight, balance, gravity, the properties of air and his famous flying machine ideas. He was the designer of the first parachute and he also designed a flying machine called Ornithopter which was proved to be working. All this happened 100s of years  before the world could ever see any kind of progress towards an actual flying machine.

Underwater breathing mask

He was also obsessed with all states of water. He drew plans for different kinds of water wheels, steam powered cannons, humidity measuring devices and various machines that could work on different states of water. He also designed an underwater breathing mask and a submarine.

He made a lot of war machines which were proven functioning and genius. Leonardo may be the best inventor the world has ever seen or will ever see, his ideas often were beyond the technology of his age or required a lot of money which he did not have. But none of these inventions ever combined his passion for art and science more than his interest in Anatomy, which is perhaps his greatest scientific contribution.

He dissected more than 30 human bodies. He sketched with great detail the renderings of muscles, nerves, bones, skulls and hearts. Every piece of muscle, cage of bone is a masterpiece in itself. He made wax structures of human organs in order to observe how they function and react. He was figuring out things that no one knew at that time. As his last crusade he studied about heart. He sent molten wax into the heart and made a glass model out of the wax moldings and pumped blood into it to observe the opening and closing of valves. His discovery about these valves and heart were revolutionary and are fundamental to the functioning of heart. But as his works were never published, not until the 20th century cardiologists started figuring this stuff out. They confirmed that Leonardo was absolutely right in his findings.

Even with today’s technology scientists are still learning from Leonardo’s observations. As many of the greatest scientist Leonardo’s contributions weren’t recognized until long after his death. He was a true inter disciplinary genius with his contributions ranging a vast range of scientific disciplines from Anatomy to Flight to War machines. But there is still a lot we can learn from him. His integration of various disciplines was mind blowing. Leonardo was a true genius as he knew all these things 500 years ago and we are still trying to figure these out. He is truly awesome-tacular.

What do you think of Leonardo da Vinci? Leave your thoughts in the comments section.


Time Travel: Scitacular


We have seen time travel in many sci-fi movies. Wouldn’t it be great if we just skip a bad day into the future or go back and redo our mistakes. If only it was possible. But can we rule out the possibility altogether? Lets look at the possibilities of accomplishing that dream.

First, lets learn what is time. All physical objects have 3 dimensions i.e; length, breadth and height. But there is another dimension called time. Space consists of the 3 commonly known dimensions and space and time combined makes our universe. Everything has a length in time. Higgs boson has about a thousandth of a billionth of a billionth of life time (1.56×10−22 sec), Humans have around 60 years of average life time, our sun has about 10 billion years of lifetime. When you think about it, this isn’t so hard to understand after all.

We saw in Star trek movies that they enter a portal and appear at another part of the universe for a mission. Can we do the same thing ? It appears we can, we can use wormholes. They are everywhere. But they are tinier than a molecule or even an atom, so we cant see them. Hundreds of millions of wormholes pass through our bodies every second. If we can concentrate the required energy to create a wormhole that can fit a human then we can possibly travel through space and time at the same time. We can Travel from the present Eiffel Tower in Paris to Taj Mahal when it was being built in 1648. But going into the past will result to the occurrence of paradoxes.

Imagine if u had a wormhole which can make you go back to the time when you were not born yet. You go and kill your mother. Then how did you kill your mother if she died before u were even born? This is a paradox. So these paradoxes restrict us from going to the past. And frankly speaking building a usable wormhole is practically impossible.

Lets look at other possible, more accessible alternatives. Einstein’s theory of relativity states that gravity can bend space and time. Gravity is the direct result of mass. Every object which has mass exerts gravity. Even you and me have our own gravitational field. We too bend space and time.

Our GPS network consists of 31 satellites orbiting our earth. Every satellite contains a very precise clock. It gains about 1/3rd of a billionth of a second every day. The system corrects this gain everyday to avoid catastrophe in our navigation systems. The problem is not of the clocks, they run fast because the time itself is faster there compared to here on earth. The reason for that time shift is the mass of the earth. The heavier the object the more time shift it causes. Even you and me cause time shift but it is negligible. So to make a difference and slow down time enough we need a bigger, more massive object. Black Holes serves this purpose. The nearest black hole is at the center of the milky way about 26,000 light years away. It is the heaviest object in our galaxy, it is about 4 million times the mass of our sun. It is 50 million miles in diameter and even light cant escape its gravitational pull. An object of this caliber has a dramatic effect on time. This is a natural time machine.

If we build a space ship and launch it in the orbit of this black hole at a safe distance like our satellites orbit our earth. We can stimulate the same time shift process and slow down time by about half that at the earth. If they had orbited for 2 years around the black hole and returned to earth, the people on earth would have aged 4 years rather than 2. That means the ship had traveled through time and accelerated time by 2 years. The ship has traveled through all the 4 dimensions. But being half as old is not enough. We need some other alternate which can take us into a farther future.

There is a more straight forward way of travelling through time. We just have to travel faster, a lot faster. Physics has a universal speed limit called the speed of light (3 x 10^8 m/s). No object can travel faster than that. But we will try to  challenge nature and test its limits. We will build a space craft with enough power to accelerate to the speed of light. The space craft starts its journey, lets say to another planet at the edge of the universe. The ship starts off accelerating at a tremendous rate. But just as it had reached the 99.99% of the speed of light, the laws of physics prevents it to go any faster. To compensate this, the time slows down at an extraordinary rate. The closer we are to the limit the slower the time. Hence, we can travel into the far ends of the universe and our future just by travelling fast. But building a space craft that can go that fast is quite impossible.

But we have built a similar machine as the craft. At the worlds largest particle collider at Cern Geneva, Switzerland. It has a 16 mile long tunnel. Here they accelerate tiny particles at the rate of 60,000 miles an hour in a fraction of a second. When we increase the power they travel faster and faster to almost the speed of light but not quite. These particles normally live for around 25th of a billionth of a second but when they are accelerated to near light speed, they last 30 times longer. These particles truly travel through time. They are real time travelers.

So time traveling is not impossible. Well not theoretically at least. If you want to go into the future just travel faster.

Leave your comments and opinions in the comment section below. Like and share if u feel like it. Know more about science here.