The Future of Sun: Scitacular


If you live on this planet you love sun and are a big fan of its work. It provides earth with just the right temperature to sustain life. The sun hasn’t been so gentle with us all the time and it definitely wont stay the same in the future. I know I know, calm down.

Currently our 4.5 billion years old sun is just like a middle aged man just past his teenage. Our Sun will spend its next 7.7 billion years growing bigger, hotter, brighter, cooler, changing its color, and finally into a white dwarf all while trying its best to destroy the earth. Sure the earth as a planet will survive sun’s might but us and everything else living on this earth, not so much.

Our sun essentially eats hydrogen for breakfast, lunch and dinner. It fuses two hydrogen atoms to form helium atom and also releasing a heck of a lot of energy. As the time passes our sun will exhaust all of its hydrogen. Then the helium and other heavier elements in its core start fusion reactions of their own. As a result more and more heavier elements like lithium,beryllium and carbon are formed in its core. Due to this, the pressure in its core starts to build up and the sun starts to expand into a red giant. A red giant is basically a bigger and badder version of our sun which will have a radius twice of that of the distance between the earth and the present sun. So basically this is the end of existence for our earth.

Then our sun starts to loose its outer layers and starts to compress and becomes a white dwarf. This is basically the end of our sun. Our sun emits all of its remaining energy and then fades away into a black dwarf floating endlessly in space.

So, don’t pack your bags yet and sign off your bosses you still have more than 7 billion years to live on this earth, if we manage to live for such a long time.

Why aren’t you a leftie or a rightie?: Scitacular


10 to 15 percent of people who are reading this article are lefties or if you happen to be the President of USA there’s a 5 in 7 chance of you being a leftie. I mean seriously, 5 out of 7 of the recent Presidents of US are lefties, even Obama is a leftie. But like 90 percent of the humans on this earth I am right handed, so why do I have a preference for one hand over the other in the first place and what is it that determines the dominance of one hand over the other? The answer maybe lies in evolution.

Handedness or hand dominance is not unique to humans, animals like dogs and cats also sometimes prefer one paw over the other. Yes! your pet is as right handed as you are. Handedness has nothing to do with genes. At least we haven’t yet discovered the gene responsible for it. Many times people in the same family usually prefer a hand over the other but that doesn’t necessarily mean that its hereditary. Identical Twins who share the same genes don’t always have the same dominant hand. So blaming genes is not fair in this situation.

There are many theories in the wild including the idea that our right handedness is an evolutionary byproduct of human cooperation. According to a study cooperative acts like sharing tools and stuff have favored the dominance of one hand over the other, so that everyone can use the same tools. Sorry you lefties, I know the design of scissors is a stupid one.

Another widely accepted theory is that our hand dominance is connected to the asymmetry of our brain. Our brains are contra lateral, which means the left hemisphere of our cerebral cortex where language and logical processing is done controls the movement of the right side of our body and the right hemisphere where the face recognition and other stuff is carried out controls the left side of our body. So the side which processes the speech and language also controls our right hand. It makes sense right. A study has shown that lefties process the language more evenly across both hemispheres and in some cases completely on the right side. So lefties have a different way of processing things than all us righties.

So lefties stop scrutinizing the design of notebooks, controllers and scissors and enjoy the fact that Scarlett Johansson is also a lefty. But I don’t think we should give any less credit to our less dominant hand because its still working hard and I cant imagine having to type this article without my right hand’s significant other.

Scitacular: How does the internet work?


Internet has become an integral part of our lives. You are viewing this blog and reading this article because of the internet. But did you ever think what exactly does internet mean, how it works? It sounds complicated but it’s not.

Lets understand the basic idea of how the internet works. Internet is nothing but interconnected computers. You are viewing this webpage on a computer. Your PC, mobile or tablet share the same architecture as a computer, so they are also computers. The webpage you are viewing sits on another computer or in a lot of computers otherwise called as servers which are situated all across the globe and even in space. In 1964 there were only 4 servers in the whole world. These servers are controlled by different companies and governments.

Now lets dig deeper into the world of internet. First, lets learn about some of the common acronyms related to internet. IP address means ‘Internet Protocol address’. IP address is the unique number assigned to every computer on the internet. To know your IP address click here. URL means ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ which is the name of the webpage to you and me. ISP means ‘Internet Service Provider’ who are the people that provide you with internet. DNS means ‘ Domain Name Server’ which is basically a server. A server is a computer which stores information about everything in the internet including websites, videos, Photos, your likes and shares of this blog in facebook and google+. These DNSs contains information about which IP address are connected to which URl.

Internet is nothing but cables and wireless signals connecting people and computers to each other all over the world. Here it goes, read this carefully. When you type a URl like or in your browser it sends this request to ISP( Internet Service Provider) which will in turn send your request to a DNS(Domain Name Server) which has the information about the URLs IP address. This DNS searches for the IP address you requested and if it doesn’t have the information it transfers the request to another DNS and so on. Eventually your request is found and the DNS sends this information back to your ISP which will in turn send it to your browser and your computer decodes this stuff and displays it on the monitor. So this is basically translates to your computer connected to another computer.

When you are connected you can download text or videos or photos from the host DNS onto your computer. It downloads this stuff by another protocol called http( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) or https( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure). You can find this in the starting of every website URL in the address bar of your browser. So when u clicked the link of this blog or article your request has traveled all around the world and who knows maybe even went into space. All this processes are done at the speed of light as a result it doesn’t take ages for a website to load. From next time if a website takes about a second longer than usual, you know that it is travelling and visiting corners of the world at the speed of light.

Now you know what happens in the internet and how it works. Leave your thoughts in the comment section below and share this if u like what you just read. Know more about science and technology here.

Time Travel: Scitacular


We have seen time travel in many sci-fi movies. Wouldn’t it be great if we just skip a bad day into the future or go back and redo our mistakes. If only it was possible. But can we rule out the possibility altogether? Lets look at the possibilities of accomplishing that dream.

First, lets learn what is time. All physical objects have 3 dimensions i.e; length, breadth and height. But there is another dimension called time. Space consists of the 3 commonly known dimensions and space and time combined makes our universe. Everything has a length in time. Higgs boson has about a thousandth of a billionth of a billionth of life time (1.56×10−22 sec), Humans have around 60 years of average life time, our sun has about 10 billion years of lifetime. When you think about it, this isn’t so hard to understand after all.

We saw in Star trek movies that they enter a portal and appear at another part of the universe for a mission. Can we do the same thing ? It appears we can, we can use wormholes. They are everywhere. But they are tinier than a molecule or even an atom, so we cant see them. Hundreds of millions of wormholes pass through our bodies every second. If we can concentrate the required energy to create a wormhole that can fit a human then we can possibly travel through space and time at the same time. We can Travel from the present Eiffel Tower in Paris to Taj Mahal when it was being built in 1648. But going into the past will result to the occurrence of paradoxes.

Imagine if u had a wormhole which can make you go back to the time when you were not born yet. You go and kill your mother. Then how did you kill your mother if she died before u were even born? This is a paradox. So these paradoxes restrict us from going to the past. And frankly speaking building a usable wormhole is practically impossible.

Lets look at other possible, more accessible alternatives. Einstein’s theory of relativity states that gravity can bend space and time. Gravity is the direct result of mass. Every object which has mass exerts gravity. Even you and me have our own gravitational field. We too bend space and time.

Our GPS network consists of 31 satellites orbiting our earth. Every satellite contains a very precise clock. It gains about 1/3rd of a billionth of a second every day. The system corrects this gain everyday to avoid catastrophe in our navigation systems. The problem is not of the clocks, they run fast because the time itself is faster there compared to here on earth. The reason for that time shift is the mass of the earth. The heavier the object the more time shift it causes. Even you and me cause time shift but it is negligible. So to make a difference and slow down time enough we need a bigger, more massive object. Black Holes serves this purpose. The nearest black hole is at the center of the milky way about 26,000 light years away. It is the heaviest object in our galaxy, it is about 4 million times the mass of our sun. It is 50 million miles in diameter and even light cant escape its gravitational pull. An object of this caliber has a dramatic effect on time. This is a natural time machine.

If we build a space ship and launch it in the orbit of this black hole at a safe distance like our satellites orbit our earth. We can stimulate the same time shift process and slow down time by about half that at the earth. If they had orbited for 2 years around the black hole and returned to earth, the people on earth would have aged 4 years rather than 2. That means the ship had traveled through time and accelerated time by 2 years. The ship has traveled through all the 4 dimensions. But being half as old is not enough. We need some other alternate which can take us into a farther future.

There is a more straight forward way of travelling through time. We just have to travel faster, a lot faster. Physics has a universal speed limit called the speed of light (3 x 10^8 m/s). No object can travel faster than that. But we will try to  challenge nature and test its limits. We will build a space craft with enough power to accelerate to the speed of light. The space craft starts its journey, lets say to another planet at the edge of the universe. The ship starts off accelerating at a tremendous rate. But just as it had reached the 99.99% of the speed of light, the laws of physics prevents it to go any faster. To compensate this, the time slows down at an extraordinary rate. The closer we are to the limit the slower the time. Hence, we can travel into the far ends of the universe and our future just by travelling fast. But building a space craft that can go that fast is quite impossible.

But we have built a similar machine as the craft. At the worlds largest particle collider at Cern Geneva, Switzerland. It has a 16 mile long tunnel. Here they accelerate tiny particles at the rate of 60,000 miles an hour in a fraction of a second. When we increase the power they travel faster and faster to almost the speed of light but not quite. These particles normally live for around 25th of a billionth of a second but when they are accelerated to near light speed, they last 30 times longer. These particles truly travel through time. They are real time travelers.

So time traveling is not impossible. Well not theoretically at least. If you want to go into the future just travel faster.

Leave your comments and opinions in the comment section below. Like and share if u feel like it. Know more about science here.

Ghosts, are they real?: Scitacular


All most everyone is familiar with Ghosts. A study suggests that 1/3 rd of all the Americans believe in them. I do appreciate  a spoonful of spookiness and horror, ghosts are fun. They scare us, pump up our adrenaline. But let’s look at the scientific aspect of ghosts. Do they really exist or are they just fragments of our awesome imagination?

There is one particular theory about ghosts which is strangely explained by the Einstein’s theory of conservation of energy. According to the theory, energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another. So all the energy in the universe is conserved. That explains why ghosts exists, When a person dies his energy is transformed into his ghost. Well, not quite. When a person dies he becomes food to worms and his body degrades, so his energy is conserved into the environment. So this possibility is ruled out.

There is also another controversy. We all agree that ghosts can walk through walls and stuff and they can slam doors and windows right? Wait, somethings not right here. How can they slam doors? To do that they should be in physical form( they should contain matter) but if they are physical, how can they walk through walls? And if they are physical they should be visible to us or our equipment right. They do, in numerous videos on the internet. But till today there isn’t any hard evidence that ghosts exist. Because all those videos are fraud.

God helmet

But often people say that they have seen ghosts. I agree that they actually saw ghosts. But( this is a big but!!) scientists actually found a way of creating ghosts. A study proves that by firing electrodes to activate a region in brain called Angular Gyrus , participants felt a ghost like figure next to them and touching them and the scientists could control the ghosts presence by alternating the current. This experiment was further proved by Micheal Persinger’s God Helmet. Wearing that helmet would enable you to see ghosts and even god himself by cleverly alternating current in your brain.

And I bet if a child after his birth till his death was never introduced to the concept of a ghost he will probably never imagine a ghost.But in this age all of us are well aware of ghosts that they appear at night and in dark, this makes us fear  ghosts whenever we are in dark. Why can’t ghosts come in bright sunlight and at mid noon? because our movies didn’t tell us that.

Fear is the only drive for the existence of ghosts not anger or vengeance. So next time whenever you see a dark room or a supposedly haunted house, believe that ghosts don’t exist and you wont find any ghosts.

So what do you think about ghosts? Tell me in the comments section below.